The most obvious piece of hardware that we utilize is our Lexus RX450h. It’s not your average SUV, however, as it is equipped with all the sensors that are a prerequisite for basic autonomy. The car and hardware were adapted by AutonomouStuff and everything is running on our in-house software.
Velodyne VLP-32C lidarThe long-range lidar helps to detect far-away obstacles, e.g., cars and pedestrians. The Velodyne VLP-32C has 32 lidar beams and has a detection range of about 80 meters. Ground removal and clustering is applied to extract obstacles from the point cloud. Alternatively, a special neural network can be used to detect other vehicles and pedestrians.
Allied Vision Mako G-319C camerasThe two cameras keep an eye on traffic lights. The left camera is pointed forward to see the farther traffic lights and the right one is pointed slightly to the right to see the closest traffic lights next to stop lines. The locations of the traffic lights are known from the high-definition map and are projected to the camera image. A patch with the traffic light is then extracted from the camera image and a neural network is used to classify whether the light is red, green or yellow.
Aptiv ESR 2.5 radarThe radar uses reflections of radio waves to estimate the distance to the vehicles ahead. It also produces instant speed measurements of those vehicles by utilizing the Doppler effect. The radar is very good at detecting large metallic objects, such as cars but struggles with pedestrians and smaller objects. Additionally, its distance measurements are very accurate in the longitudinal direction but lack precision in the lateral direction.
NovAtel PwrPak7D GNSS deviceThe GNSS device determines the location of the car using satellite positioning and corrections from nearby base stations. The system makes use of a Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) system with the ESTPOS base station network to consistently achieve a positioning accuracy of 5–10 cm. The car needs to know its precise position on the high-definition map to follow the virtual "rails" featured on the map.
AStuff Spectra computerThe computer runs our in-house software that makes all the driving decisions. Other than that, the computer is just a normal PC running an Ubuntu operating system.
Ouster OS1-128 lidar
Vertical resolution: 128 channels
Horizontal resolution: 512, 1024, or 2048
Horizontal FOV: 360°
Horizontal angular resolution: min 0.17°
Vertical angular resolution: 0.35°
Range: 120 meters
Precision: ±0.7-5 cm
Frame rate: 10 or 20 Hz